Table of Contents > Herbs & Supplements > Cayenne (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum spp.) Print

Cayenne (Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum spp.)

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Also listed as: Capsicum annuum, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum spp.
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • acyclic diterpene glycosides, African Capsicum, African chillies, African pepper, anastasia black, anastasia red, anastasia red of sweet pepper, ancho chilli, anteraxanthin, anthocyanins, arnoia peppers, ascorbic acid, bell pepper, belrubi, beta-apo-8'-carotenal, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, bg 2816, big jim, bird eye chilli, bird pepper, bounty banana pepper plants, C. chinense cultigens PA-426 and PA-350, C. praetermissum, CAAN4, capsaicin, capsaicin oleoresins, capsaicin-beta-D-glucopyranoside, capsaicinoids, capsanthin, capsiate, capsibiol, capsibiol-t, capsiconiate, capsiconinoids, capsicosides, Capsicum annuum L., Capsicum annuum L. accession Criollo de Morelos-334, Capsicum annuum L. 'avelar', Capsicum annuum L. 'bellboy', Capsicum annuum L. 'buchon', Capsicum annuum L. 'Bugang', Capsicum annuum L. Bukang, Capsicum annuum L. 'California', Capsicum annuum L. 'California wonder', Capsicum annuum L. Chilsungcho, Capsicum annuum L. CM334, Capsicum annuum L. coraciforme, Capsicum annuum L. 'dabotop', Capsicum annuum L. 'early calwonder', Capsicum annuum L. 'excalibur', Capsicum annuum L. fruit extract, Capsicum annuum L. grossum, Capsicum annuum L. 'hyang chon', Capsicum annuum L. 'jejujaerae', Capsicum annuum L. 'kyonami', Capsicum annuum L. 'lamuyo', Capsicum annuum L. 'mazurka', Capsicum annuum L. 'NuMex RNaky', Capsicum annuum L. 'P1482', Capsicum annuum L. 'padron', Capsicum annuum L. parent 'maor', Capsicum annuum L. 'pukang', Capsicum annuum L. 'Saeng-Ryeog #211', Capsicum annuum L. 'Saeng-Ryeog #213', Capsicum annuum L. 'TF68', Capsicum annuum L. type lamuyo, Capsicum annuum L. var. Anaheim, Capsicum annuum L. var. angulosum Mill., Capsicum annuum L. var. angulosum Mill. (Solanaceae), Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum (chili jalapeño chigol), Capsicum annuum var. annuum L., Capsicum annuum L. var. bronowicka ostra, Capsicum annuum L. var. California, Capsicum annuum L. var. conoides, Capsicum annuum var. conoides takanotume (RP), Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum, Capsicum annuum L. var. Km-622, Capsicum annuum var. longum sendtner, Capsicum annuum var. lycopersiciforme rubrum, Capsicuum annuum var. variata, Capsicum annuum L. var. yolo wonder b, Capsicum annuum L. 'yaglik', Capsicum baccatum, Capsicum baccatum 'PBC80', Capsicum callus, Capsicum chinense, Capsicum chinense 'Habanero', Capsicum chinense Jacq., Capsicum chacoense, Capsicum eximium, Capsicum fruit, Capsicum frutescens, Capsicum frutescens accession BG2814-6, Capsicum frutescens fruit, Capsici fructus acer, Capsicum minimum, Capsicum oleoresin, Capsicum pendulum, Capsicum pubescens, capsidiol, capsin, capsinoids, capsiplast, capsorubin, capzasin, Carolina cayenne, carotenoids, cas 404-86-4, cas 84603-55-4, cascabel chilli, casorubin, cay-1, cayenne pepper, Charleston belle, chilaca, chile, chile ancho (Capsicum annuum L. 'San Luis'), chili, chili guajillo puya (Capsicum annuum L.), chili guajillo puya flour, chili pepper, chilli, chillies, chung yang variety, civamide, cremor capsici compositus fna (ccc), criollo de morelos 334, datler, delfin, dihydrocapsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin-beta-D-glucopyranoside, dihydrocapsiconiate, dn3, dn5, dohevanil, dolorac, dolorub capsico, dr6, early jalapeño, feruloylserotonin, fiery jack, flavonoids, fructus capsici, gang ja variety, garden pepper, glucosides, goat's pepper, goat's pod, grains of paradise, green bell pepper, green Capsicum, green chili pepper, green pepper, guajillo peppers, high heat, homocapsaicin, homodihydrocapsaicin, honka, hot chili pepper, hot pepper, Hungarian pepper, hydroxycapsaicin, ici fructus, jalapeño, Japanese Capsicum, jaranda, jariza, keystone resistant giant, lignan glycosides, Louisiana long pepper, Louisiana sport pepper, lr2, lr7, lutein, ma1, ma3, mana, Mexican chillies, minerals, mulato, ne-21610, negral, neoxanthin, New Mexico no. 6 chile, nonivamide, nordihydrocapsaicin, nordihydrocapsiate, numex, oleoresin Capsicum (oc) spray, p-coumaroylserotonin, padrón-type, pageant banana pepper plants, pain-free HPT, paprika, pepper, pepper ('Padrón'), pimento, pimiento, poblano, pod pepper, ponv-Capsicum plaster (pas), proteins, provitamins E, P, B1, B2, and B3, pungent pepper, quercetin, red chiles, red chili, red chili spur pepper, red pepper, resiniferitoxin, resiniferatoxin (rtx), Rheumaplast®, rn1, rn2, Russian sweet pepper, saponin, serrano, sesquiterpenoids, Solanaceae (family), steroidal saponins, sweet pepper, tabasco pepper, thiols, trans-8-methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide, ubatuba cambuchi, uchu, vanilloid, vanillyl fatty acid amides, violaxanthin, vitamin A, vitamin C, volatile oils, Wärme-PflasterT, yolo wonder, xilli, Zanzibar pepper, zeaxanthin, Zostrix®.
  • Note: This monograph focuses on cayenne and pungent Capsicum spp. and does not specifically include clinical trials investigating the effects of isolated capsaicin or information on nonpungent varieties of Capsicum. However, due to the nature of Capsicum (pungent and nonpungent varieties within the same species and occasionally the same variety), some information on nonpungent Capsicum is included.

Background
  • Cayenne is a spice derived mainly from two cultivated species of the Capsicum genus, Capsicum annuum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Capsicum adds color, pungency, and aroma to dishes around the world. Although originally cultivated in the tropical Americas, it is now grown worldwide. Capsicum annuum is cultivated almost exclusively in Europe and the United States, and Capsicum frutescens is cultivated in the tropics and warmer regions of the United States.
  • The level of pungency (heat) of the Capsicum species depends mainly on the concentration of capsaicinoids, primarily capsaicin. Chili peppers and red peppers come from plants with capsaicinoid levels 30-600 parts per million and 600-13,000 parts per million, respectively. Paprika is derived from plants with lower levels of capsaicinoids and is used to flavor less spicy foods, such as ketchup, cheese, and salads. Spanish paprika (pimento) is mainly used for coloring. The more spicy chilies and chili pepper from Capsicum annuum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. are used in curry powder, Tabasco® sauce, and chili powder. Cayenne pepper is made by grinding the pungent fruit of Capsicum into a powder.
  • Overall, clinical evidence is good for the use of topical Capsicum in a plaster for low back pain and at various acupoints for postoperative pain, nausea, and vomiting. Cayenne pepper is approved by the Commission E as a topical ointment for the relief of painful muscle spasms. The mechanism of action for topical pain relief by Capsicum is well studied. It is likely that the pain-relieving effect of pungent Capsicum spp. is due to capsaicin.
  • Capsicum is traditionally used for other purposes, including (but not limited to) weight loss, sore throat, tonsillitis, gastrointestinal disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, muscle pain, and skin conditions. However, clinical support for Capsicum for these uses is lacking. The main constituent of Capsicum, capsaicin, has also been investigated in clinical study.
  • Cayenne was proposed as a chemical weapon during the American Civil War. Today, oleoresin of Capsicum has mostly replaced use of earlier riot control agents, such as chloroacetophenone and chlorodihydrophenarsazine.
  • Capsicum essential oil and cayenne pepper are listed in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list for use as a spice in foods. When used orally, Capsicum may cause gastrointestinal irritation, mouth and throat irritation, damaged taste buds with reduced ability to taste foods, fullness, flatulence, dyspepsia, diarrhea, ulcer aggravation, and stomach pain. Based on secondary sources, large amounts may cause kidney and liver damage. Topically, Capsicum may cause burning, redness, and irritation. Inhalation of Capsicum may cause dyspnea and cough. It may also irritate mucous membranes.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *


Good evidence suggests that cayenne may reduce lower back pain when applied to the skin. Additional research is needed to reach a strong conclusion about dose, duration, and safety.
B


Capsicum plaster at acupoints, an alternative to acupuncture, has been studied as a means to reduce postoperative nausea and vomiting with promising results. Based on available studies, Capsicum plaster at P6 or K-D2 may reduce postoperative nausea, vomiting, and the need for anti-nausea medications. Additional study is needed to understand the mechanism of action and appropriate dosing.
B


Cayenne plasters at acupoints reduced postoperative pain and the need for pain-relieving medications. Further study on dose, duration, and safety is still required.
B


Capsaicin cream may help reduce pain associated with diabetic nerve damage (neuropathy). However, additional research is needed to confirm these findings.
C


It is unclear if chili peppers are helpful for duodenal ulcers. Additional research is needed in this area.
C


Early evidence suggests that cayenne may help treat symptoms of indigestion (dyspepsia). Additional well-designed research is needed before conclusions can be drawn.
C


Based on early evidence, homeopathic remedies, including Capsicum, may help treat symptoms of ear infections. However, additional research testing the effect of Capsicum alone is needed.
C


It is unclear if capsaicin helps prevent the growth of Helicobacter pylori, a bacterium that may cause peptic ulcer disease. Research results are mixed.
C


Capsicum may reduce soft tissue pain when applied to the skin. However, additional research is needed before conclusions can be drawn.
C


Limited evidence suggests that capsaicin nasal spray may help reduce nasal congestion in patients with chronic rhinitis. However, additional research is needed before conclusions can be made.
C


In preliminary study, Capsicum plaster at the K-A20 acupoint reduced postoperative sore throat for patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy. Further well-designed study is required before firm conclusions can be drawn.
C


Early evidence suggests that Capsicum spices may help improve concentration. Further study in this field is required before conclusions can be drawn.
C


An herbal product containing cayenne (Capsicum annuum), American pokeweed (Phytolacca Americana), and Lignum vitae (Guajacum officinale), helped reduce tonsillitis symptoms. Additional research using cayenne alone is needed before conclusions can be made.
C


Early evidence suggests that cayenne may help suppress the appetite, but well-designed human research is limited. Additional trials testing cayenne alone are needed.
C
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Age-related macular degeneration, aging, alcoholism, analgesic, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antiseptic, antioxidant, appetite stimulant, arthritis, asthma, bladder cancer, bladder disorders (overactive bladder), bleeding, blood clot prevention, cancer, cardiovascular disorders, chilblains, colds, colic, cosmetic uses, cramps, delirium, depression, diabetes, diarrhea, digestive stimulant, diuretic, dropsy, energy, erectile dysfunction, eye disorders, fever, fibromyalgia, food flavoring, food uses (coloring), food uses (taste repellant for accidental poisoning prevention), frostbite, gas, gastrointestinal disorders, gum disease, headaches, hemorrhoids, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, hoarseness, improved blood circulation, insecticidal, itch, joint and muscle pain, laryngitis, male infertility, memory, menstrual cramps, motion sickness, muscle spasms, myalgia, nail biting, nasal polyps, nerve regeneration, neuralgia, neuropathy, pain (following amputation), pleurisy, pneumonia, poor circulation, psoriasis, saliva stimulant, shingles, skin conditions, skin irritation, sleep aid, snake bites, sprains, thumbsucking, tonic, toothache, ulcer, urinary incontinence / detrusor instability, urinary tract cancer, varicose veins, yellow fever.

Dosing

Adults (18 years and older)

  • According to secondary sources, the dose of Capsicum is dependent on the reason for its use. It has been recommended that the patient talk to a caregiver or follow the directions on product packaging. Doses may range from 30 milligram to 400 milligrams, 1 to 4 capsules, or 10 to 15 drops (0.5 milliliters) in water four times throughout the day, daily. In the United States, oral supplemental Capsicum appears to be most commonly available in capsule form.
  • According to secondary sources, an infusion of cayenne may be made by pouring one cup of boiling water onto one-half to one teaspoonful of cayenne and leaving it to infuse for 10 minutes. One tablespoonful in hot water as needed. 0.25-1 milliliters of tincture of cayenne three times daily or as needed.
  • For duodenal ulcers, 3 grams of red chili powder has been taken in three divided doses daily for four weeks without evidence of benefit or adverse effects.
  • For indigestion (dyspepsia) 2.5 grams of powdered Capsicum annuum has been taken daily (before meals) for five weeks.
  • A dose of six sliced fresh jalapeños has been used for Helicobacter pylori infection without evidence of benefit.
  • Capsicum spices have been used as a stimulant, but the dose and duration are unknown.
  • According to secondary sources, for chilblains, a piece of flannel may be saturated with Capsicum and rubbed well over the seat of the chilblain until a strong "tingling and electrical" feeling occurs. This is repeated daily until the chilblain is gone (2-3 days). Do not apply to broken skin.
  • According to secondary sources, powdered Capsicum may be sprinkled inside the socks on unbroken skin to treat cold feet. Dose and duration are not well described.
  • For lower back pain, a topical plaster containing Capsicum has been applied to the skin for up to three weeks. A Capsicum-based gel with 0.1 grams of Capsicum oleoresin per 11 grams of gel has also been used three times daily for one week.
  • For soft tissue pain, Capsicum cream has been applied to the skin. However, the dose and duration are unclear.
  • For postoperative nausea and vomiting, 1 x 1 centimeters of Capsicum plaster has been applied at the P6 acupoint. Treatment was applied 30 minutes before anesthesia until six hours after the patients were transferred to the postoperative unit. Capsicum plaster has also been used at the K-D2 or P6 acupoints before anesthesia until eight hours after surgery.
  • For postoperative pain, Capsicum plaster has been used at the Hegu LI4 or Zusanli acupoints from before anesthesia for eight hours daily for three consecutive days.
  • For postoperative sore throat, Capsicum plaster has been applied to the K-A20 acupoint from prior to anesthesia until eight hours after surgery.
  • For rhinitis, a Capsicum oleous nasal spray has been used once in each nostril (4 micrograms per "puff"), three times daily for three consecutive days. Each "puff" was separated by 30 minutes.

Children (under 18 years old)

  • For postoperative pain, Capsicum plaster has been applied at the Zusanli acupoints.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid in patients with known allergy/hypersensitivity to plants in the genus Capsicum and family Solanaceae. Allergy to bell peppers and paprika is known. Profilins, allergens in various plant foods, including bell peppers, have been isolated from bell pepper. According to secondary sources, cross sensitivity to the constituent dihydrocapsaicin, paprika, or other hot peppers of the Capsicum genus, may be possible. According to secondary sources and case reports, individuals with allergies to latex or tropical fruits (bananas, kiwi) may also be allergic to Capsicum.
  • Positive skin prick tests and elevated specific IgE concentrations have been observed with cayenne. There was a strong link between positive skin test reactions to cayenne with tree pollens, fruits, and vegetables, suggesting cross allergies.
  • In humans, capsaicin inhalation does not appear to affect airway responsiveness to hypertonic saline, and the capsaicin cough sensitivity test can be performed validly before a saline challenge.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • Cayenne and Capsicum are considered safe for most healthy patients in levels commonly found in foods. Capsicum essential oil and cayenne pepper are listed in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) list for use as a spice in foods. Cayenne or Capsicum supplements may increase intakes to above desirable levels.
  • When taken by mouth, Capsicum may cause gastrointestinal irritation, reduced ability to taste foods, feelings of fullness, flatulence, indigestion, heartburn, diarrhea, ulcer aggravation, rectal sensitivity, and stomach pain. Based on secondary sources, large amounts may cause kidney and liver damage. Long-term chili consumption has been linked to gastroesophageal reflux. Use cautiously in patients with gastrointestinal disorders, including ulcers. Use cautiously in patients with acute anal fissures or following surgery for anal fissures, as consumption of red hot chili peppers may increase burning and pain.
  • Enamel loss and stained teeth were reported in a patient who chewed cayenne and drank wine with a high-tannin content.
  • When applied to the skin, Capsicum may cause burning, redness, irritation, warm or burning sensations, itching, eczema, dermatitis, increased sensitivity to pain (hyperalgesia), sweating, and inflamed nerve tissues (neurogenic inflammation). Avoid applying to sensitive areas of skin, such as broken skin, open sores, genital areas, eyes, mouth, and nasal mucosa. Wash hands after use and before touching these sensitive areas. Avoid applying to the skin in patients who are younger than two years of age due to a lack of safety data.
  • According to a review, skin injury may occur after exposure to oleoresin of Capsicum as a riot-control agent. Oleoresin Capsicum (pepper spray) may cause eye pain or irritation, burning, redness, blurred vision, tearing, reduced corneal sensitivity, punctate epithelial erosions, blepharospasm, conjunctival edema, hyperemia, lacrimation, temporary blindness, visual disturbances, and corneal abrasions.
  • Inhaling Capsicum may cause difficulty breathing, sneezing, burning of the throat, and cough. It may also irritate mucous membranes.
  • Cayenne may increase the risk of bleeding. Caution is advised in patients with bleeding disorders or in those taking agents that may increase the risk of bleeding. Dosing adjustments may be necessary.
  • Capsaicin has increased blood pressure. Regular chili ingestion has decreased heart rate. Use cautiously in patients with heart disease or in those using medications for cardiovascular disorders.
  • Capsaicin may reduce blood sugar levels and increase insulin levels. Use cautiously in patients with diabetes or those using antidiabetic agents.
  • Capsaicin has been associated with Cajun claw syndrome.
  • Use cautiously in patients taking aspirin products, due to the potential to alter blood levels of these agents.
  • Use cautiously in patients taking theophylline, due to the potential to alter blood levels of this agent.
  • Use cautiously in patients using ACE inhibitors (blood pressure-lowering drugs), as a case report suggests that the combination may increase the risk of cough, and other early evidence suggests that capsaicin may affect blood pressure levels.
  • Use cautiously in individuals with addictive personalities, as addiction to hot chili pepper in food has been noted.
  • Use cautiously in pregnant or lactating women, due to a lack of safety information. Secondary sources suggest that compounds in cayenne may pass into breast milk and cause reddened or irritated skin in breastfed infants.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • There is currently a lack of safety data on Capsicum during pregnancy and breastfeeding. According to secondary sources, women who are breastfeeding should not take Capsicum by mouth because constituents may pass into breast milk. Reddened or irritated skin has been reported in breastfed infants whose mothers consumed Capsicum.
  • Observational evidence suggests that fetal abnormalities were more common among women who ate diets rich in chili pepper.
  • In pregnant rats, capsaicin injections did not have toxic effects. However, on the 18th day of pregnancy, pup length was reduced. In animals, capsaicin caused neonatal distress and altered the escape in response to a hot plate in both the pregnant mother and the offspring.
  • Information on cayenne's effects on breastfeeding is currently lacking in the National Institute of Health's Lactation and Toxicology Database (LactMed).

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Capsaicin may lower blood pressure (particularly in high doses) and cause cough in patients who are taking ACE inhibitors (blood pressure-lowering drugs).
  • Capsaicin has been shown to have gastroprotective effects against ethanol.
  • Capsicum species may reduce pain when applied to the skin. In theory, using capsicum with pain-relievers may have additive effects. However, in human pain studies, pain-relievers have been used to reduce pain associated with capsaicin or Capsicum use.
  • Capsaicin may increase androgen receptor expression.
  • Although early evidence suggests capsaicin may prevent the growth of various bacteria, including Helicobacter pylori, results have been mixed. Other research suggests that capsaicin may increase the effects of the antibiotics cefazolin and ciprofloxacin.
  • Capsicum may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with drugs that increase the risk of bleeding. Some examples include aspirin, anticoagulants ("blood thinners") such as warfarin (Coumadin®) or heparin, anti-platelet drugs such as clopidogrel (Plavix®), and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen (Motrin®, Advil®) or naproxen (Naprosyn®, Aleve®).
  • Capsicum may interact with anti-seizure medications, causing increased sleepiness.
  • Capsaicin may interact with antidepressants called monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).
  • Capsaicin may lower blood sugar levels and increase insulin levels. Caution is advised when using medications that may also lower blood sugar. Patients taking drugs for diabetes by mouth or insulin should be monitored closely by qualified healthcare professionals, including pharmacists. Medication adjustments may be necessary.
  • Saponin, found in Capsicum frutescens, may have fungicidal effects against Candida and Aspergillus spp.
  • Capsicum may also interact with anti-inflammatory agents, cholesterol-lowering agents, anticancer agents, antiobesity agents, antiparasitic agents, antipyrine, antiulcer agents, antiviral agents, aspirin, caffeine, capsazepine, CNS depressants, cocaine, cytochrome P450 metabolized agents, gastrointestinal agents, immunosuppressants, isopropyl alcohol, morphine, naloxone, nitrates, p-glycoprotein-related drugs, resiniferatoxin, sucralfate, theophylline, tobacco, triptans, valdecoxib, quinine, and vasodilators.
  • In animal study, capsaicin had no effect on the body's breakdown of quinine.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Capsicum species may reduce pain when applied to the skin. In theory, using capsicum with pain-relievers may have additive effects. However, in human pain studies, pain-relievers have been used to reduce pain associated with capsaicin or Capsicum use.
  • Capsaicin may increase androgen receptor expression.
  • Capsicum has increased stomach acid and therefore may interfere with antacids.
  • Although early evidence suggests capsaicin may prevent the growth of various bacteria, including Helicobacter pylori, results have been mixed. Other research suggests that capsaicin may increase the effects of the antibiotics cefazolin and ciprofloxacin.
  • Capsicum may increase the risk of bleeding when taken with herbs and supplements that are believed to increase the risk of bleeding.
  • Capsicum may interact with anti-seizure medications, causing increased sleepiness.
  • Capsaicin may interact with monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs).
  • Saponin, found in Capsicum frutescens, may have fungicidal effects against Candida and Aspergillus spp.
  • Capsicum may also interact with anti-inflammatory herbs or supplements, cholesterol-lowering herbs or supplements, anticancer herbs or supplements, antiobesity herbs or supplements, antioxidants, antiparasitics, antivirals, apple cider vinegar, caffeine, calcium, catechin, coca, copper, cytochrome P450-metabolized herbs and supplements, docosahexaenoic acid, gastrointestinal agents, immunomodulators, iron, mullein leaf, p-glycoprotein-modulators, poppy, salicylate-containing herbs, sedatives, slippery elm, theophylline, tobacco, tyrosine, vasodilators, and vitamin C.
  • In animal study, capsaicin had no effect on the body's breakdown of quinine.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Bortolotti, M, Coccia, G, Grossi, G, et al. The treatment of functional dyspepsia with red pepper. Aliment Pharmacol Ther 2002;16(6):1075-1082.
  2. Ciabatti, PG and D'Ascanio, L. Intranasal Capsicum spray in idiopathic rhinitis: a randomized prospective application regimen trial. Acta Otolaryngol 2009;129(4):367-371.
  3. Frerick, H, Keitel, W, Kuhn, U, et al. Topical treatment of chronic low back pain with a capsicum plaster. Pain 2003;106(1-2):59-64.
  4. Friese, KH, Kruse, S, Ludtke, R, et al. The homoeopathic treatment of otitis media in children--comparisons with conventional therapy. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 1997;35(7):296-301.
  5. Gagnier, JJ, van Tulder, MW, Berman, B, et al. Herbal medicine for low back pain: a Cochrane review. Spine (Phila Pa 1976.) 1-1-2007;32(1):82-92.
  6. Gagnier, JJ, van Tulder, M, Berman, B, et al. Herbal medicine for low back pain. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2006;(2):CD004504.
  7. Ginsberg, F and Famaey, JP. A double-blind study of topical massage with Rado-Salil ointment in mechanical low-back pain. J Int Med Res 1987;15(3):148-153.
  8. Graham, DY, Anderson, SY, and Lang, T. Garlic or jalapeno peppers for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol 1999;94(5):1200-1202.
  9. Hoeger, WW, Harris, C, Long, EM, et al. Four-week supplementation with a natural dietary compound produces favorable changes in body composition. Adv Ther 1998;15(5):305-314.
  10. Keitel, W, Frerick, H, Kuhn, U, et al. Capsicum pain plaster in chronic non-specific low back pain. Arzneimittelforschung 2001;51(11):896-903.
  11. Kim, KS, Koo, MS, Jeon, JW, et al. Capsicum plaster at the korean hand acupuncture point reduces postoperative nausea and vomiting after abdominal hysterectomy. Anesth Analg 2002;95(4):1103-7, table.
  12. Kumar, N, Vij, JC, Sarin, SK, et al. Do chillies influence healing of duodenal ulcer? Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 6-16-1984;288(6433):1803-1804.
  13. Meyer-Bahlburg, HF. Pilot studies on stimulant effects of capsicum spices. Nutr Metab 1972;14(4):245-254.
  14. Misra, MN, Pullani, AJ, and Mohamed, ZU. Prevention of PONV by acustimulation with capsicum plaster is comparable to ondansetron after middle ear surgery: [La prevention des NVPO par acustimulation avec un emplatre de Capsicum est comparable a celle de l'ondansetron apres une operation a l'oreille moyenne]. Can J Anaesth 2005;52(5):485-489.
  15. Park, HS, Kim, KS, Min, HK, et al. Prevention of postoperative sore throat using capsicum plaster applied at the Korean hand acupuncture point. Anaesthesia 2004;59(7):647-651.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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