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Tangerine (Citrus reticulata)

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Also listed as: Citrus reticulata, Mandarin
Related terms
Background
Evidencetable
Tradition
Dosing
Safety
Interactions
Attribution
Bibliography

Related Terms
  • Beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, carotenoids, Citri Reticulatae Viride Pericarpium, Citrus reticulata, Citrus reticulata Blanco, Citrus reticulate, Dancy tangerine (Citrus tangerinia), folate, grapefruit (Citrus paradisi), limonin, limonoid glucoside mixture, limonoids, lutein, magnesium, mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), nomilin, orange (Citrus sinensis), polyphenols, Rutaceae (family), tangeretin, tangerine juice, vitamin C, xanthophyll esters, zeaxanthin.

Background
  • Tangerine (Citrus reticulata) is a citrus fruit that is well known for being sweet and easy to peel. The name tangerine comes from Tangier, Morocco, the port from which the first tangerines were shipped to Europe. Tangerine contains vitamin C, folate, and beta-carotene. In Korea, tangerine peel has traditionally been used to promote liver qi activity and the function of the digestive system.
  • Tangerine may have antioxidant and anti-cancer properties. However, there is currently a lack of available evidence in humans to support the use of tangerine for any medical indication.

Evidence Table

These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. GRADE *
* Key to grades

A: Strong scientific evidence for this use
B: Good scientific evidence for this use
C: Unclear scientific evidence for this use
D: Fair scientific evidence for this use (it may not work)
F: Strong scientific evidence against this use (it likley does not work)


Tradition / Theory

The below uses are based on tradition, scientific theories, or limited research. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider. There may be other proposed uses that are not listed below.

  • Antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), cancer, cancer prevention, cardiovascular disease, chemotherapeutic adjunct, gastrointestinal disorders, infection, leukemia.

Dosing

Adults (over 18 years old):

  • There is no proven effective dose for tangerine in adults.

Children (under 18 years old):

  • There is no proven effective dose of tangerine in children.

Safety

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration does not strictly regulate herbs and supplements. There is no guarantee of strength, purity or safety of products, and effects may vary. You should always read product labels. If you have a medical condition, or are taking other drugs, herbs, or supplements, you should speak with a qualified healthcare provider before starting a new therapy. Consult a healthcare provider immediately if you experience side effects.

Allergies

  • Avoid in individuals with a known allergy or hypersensitivity to tangerine. The essential oil of tangerine in a fragrance has been associated with skin rash.

Side Effects and Warnings

  • There are few reports of adverse effects associated with tangerine. However, skin rash has been associated with tangerine essential oil and bowel obstructions have been reported.
  • Use cautiously in patients with gastrointestinal disorders, as tangerine has been associated with intestinal obstructions.
  • Use cautiously in patients taking agents for cancer. Also, use cautiously in patients taking agents metabolized by cytochrome P450, as tangerine may stimulate cytochrome P450 3A4. Consult with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, to check for interactions.

Pregnancy and Breastfeeding

  • Tangerine is not recommended in pregnant or breastfeeding women in amounts higher than those found in foods due to a lack of available scientific evidence.

Interactions

Interactions with Drugs

  • Although not well studied in humans, tangerine may inhibit Helicobacter pylori. Use cautiously with other antibiotics due to possible additive effects. Preliminary evidence also suggests that tangerine may have antioxidant properties.
  • Tangerine juice may lower cholesterol and triglycerides. Use cautiously with high or low cholesterol or if taking cholesterol-altering medications.
  • In theory, constituents found in citrus fruits, including tangerine, may have additive effects with other anti-inflammatory agents.
  • Although not well studied in humans, tangerine peel or its extracts may have anticancer activity. In addition, tangerine and other Chinese medicinal herbs may decrease the toxic effects of chemotherapy.
  • Tangerine juice may interfere with the way the body processes certain drugs using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of these drugs may be decreased in the blood and the intended effects may be reduced. Patients taking any medications should check the package insert and speak with a qualified healthcare professional, including a pharmacist, about possible interactions.

Interactions with Herbs and Dietary Supplements

  • Although not well studied in humans, tangerine may inhibit Helicobacter pylori. Caution is advised in patients taking other herbs or supplements with antibacterial activity due to possible additive effects. Preliminary evidence also suggests that tangerine may have antioxidant properties.
  • Tangerine juice may also lower cholesterol and triglycerides. Use cautiously with high or low cholesterol or if taking cholesterol-altering herbs or supplements.
  • In theory, constituents found in citrus fruits, including tangerine, may have additive effects with other herbs with anti-inflammatory effects.
  • Although not well studied in humans, tangerine peel or its extracts may have anticancer activity. In addition, tangerine and other Chinese medicinal herbs may decrease the toxic effects of chemotherapy.
  • Tangerine juice may interfere with the way the body processes certain herbs or supplements using the liver's "cytochrome P450" enzyme system. As a result, the levels of other herbs or supplements may become too low in the blood. It may also alter the effects that other herbs or supplements potentially may have on the P450 system.

Attribution
  • This information is based on a systematic review of scientific literature edited and peer-reviewed by contributors to the Natural Standard Research Collaboration (www.naturalstandard.com).

Bibliography
  1. Aslan A, Unal I, Karaguzel G, et al. A case of intestinal obstruction due to phytobezoar--an alternative surgical approach. Swiss.Surg 2003;9(1):35-37.
  2. Backman JT, Maenpaa J, Belle DJ, et al. Lack of correlation between in vitro and in vivo studies on the effects of tangeretin and tangerine juice on midazolam hydroxylation. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2000;67(4):382-390.
  3. Granado F, Olmedilla B, Blanco I, et al. Major fruit and vegetable contributors to the main serum carotenoids in the Spanish diet. Eur J Clin Nutr 1996;50(4):246-250.
  4. Huang HY, Chang CK, Tso TK, et al. Antioxidant activities of various fruits and vegetables produced in Taiwan. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2004;55(5):423-429.
  5. Irwig MS, El Sohemy A, Baylin A, et al. Frequent intake of tropical fruits that are rich in beta-cryptoxanthin is associated with higher plasma beta-cryptoxanthin concentrations in Costa Rican adolescents. J Nutr 2002;132(10):3161-3167.
  6. Kang SA, Park HJ, Kim MJ, et al. Citri Reticulatae Viride Pericarpium extract induced apoptosis in SNU-C4, human colon cancer cells. J Ethnopharmacol 2-28-2005;97(2):231-235.
  7. Kim MJ, Park HJ, Hong MS, et al. Citrus Reticulata blanco induces apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells SNU-668. Nutr Cancer 2005;51(1):78-82.
  8. Li Y, Xu C, Zhang Q, et al. In vitro anti-Helicobacter pylori action of 30 Chinese herbal medicines used to treat ulcer diseases. J Ethnopharmacol 4-26-2005;98(3):329-333.
  9. Murakami A, Nakamura Y, Ohto Y, et al. Suppressive effects of citrus fruits on free radical generation and nobiletin, an anti-inflammatory polymethoxyflavonoid. Biofactors 2000;12(1-4):187-192.
  10. Rincon AM, Vasquez AM, Padilla FC. [Chemical composition and bioactive compounds of flour of orange (Citrus sinensis), tangerine (Citrus reticulata) and grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) peels cultivated in Venezuela]. Arch Latinoam.Nutr 2005;55(3):305-310.
  11. Sugiyama S, Umehara K, Kuroyanagi M, et al. Studies on the differentiation inducers of myeloid leukemic cells from Citrus species. Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo) 1993;41(4):714-719.
  12. Tian Q, Miller EG, Ahmad H, et al. Differential inhibition of human cancer cell proliferation by citrus limonoids. Nutr Cancer 2001;40(2):180-184.
  13. Vilaplana J, Romaguera C. Contact dermatitis from the essential oil of tangerine in fragrance. Contact Dermatitis 2002;46(2):108.
  14. Vinson JA, Liang X, Proch J, et al. Polyphenol antioxidants in citrus juices: in vitro and in vivo studies relevant to heart disease. Adv Exp Med Biol 2002;505:113-122.
  15. Yuan JM, Wang XL, Xiang YB, et al. Preserved foods in relation to risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Shanghai, China. Int J Cancer 2-1-2000;85(3):358-363.

Copyright © 2011 Natural Standard (www.naturalstandard.com)


The information in this monograph is intended for informational purposes only, and is meant to help users better understand health concerns. Information is based on review of scientific research data, historical practice patterns, and clinical experience. This information should not be interpreted as specific medical advice. Users should consult with a qualified healthcare provider for specific questions regarding therapies, diagnosis and/or health conditions, prior to making therapeutic decisions.

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